It’s useful to analyze which purposes of student data collection are primary, for which permission is expected and implied when data is collected.
Some “primary use” categories are obvious. In order for schools to function, they need basic information about students and parents. They need to record grades, know who is eligible for subsidized lunch, and who has special learning needs. Schools need to share data with vendors who operate cafeterias, school buses, and data storage systems for the school. In general, we might think about administrative and educational purposes as primary purposes of a school system where data collection is necessary, expected, and where it is not feasible to provide parents with choices because to do so would prevent the school from providing students with basic school educational services.