Historically speaking, studies of literacy have undergone two major shifts over the last four or five decades. The first shift took place in early seventies and eighties with the publication of a series of works such as The Literacy Myth (Harvey Graff, 1979), The Psychology of Literacy (Scribner & Cole, 1981), Literacy in Theory and Practice ( Brain Street, 1984),The Uses of Literacy: Aspects of Working Class Life (Richard Hoggart, 1957). These studies challenged the established and traditional approaches to literacy which, until then, was considered a personal affair, an individual cognitive process. These studies emphasized the social and cultural aspects of literacy and advanced the view that literacy is a social practice, a social event mediated by text.
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